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Please provide a detailed and broad answer to serve a wide range of these questions. Bitcoin transactions are mined processed by Miners, and Miners want to benefit from their work. By mining transactions with higher fees, they make more money.
Some miners can decide to mine all transactions no matter the fee but they still must compete with every other financially motivated miner. Your wallet and any Bitcoin node will show it as unconfirmed, your transaction is stuck in limbo. Block sizes are limited, which means that only a limited number of transactions can be processed in a certain timeframe.
In the beginning of bitcoin, there was lots of free space in each block because there were not many transactions. However, now that Bitcoin is quite popular there are more transactions than can be processed into the current block. This is why transaction fees have increased, and as long as someone is still willing to pay more they will keep increasing.
Transaction fees vary by the size of your transaction, and not all transactions are the same size. The fee for same sized transactions also depends on how busy the bitcoin network is at the moment. Most wallets have a feature which dynamically calculates the rate based on network congestion. Yes, there is a way to save a borked transmission. A restart of the wallet and some patience typically fixes the issue. In the case that your fee is too low: Now that child-pays-for-parent has been merged , you or any of the recipients of your unconfirmed transaction could spend the Bitcoin received and the fee associated with that second transaction will help prioritize the confirmation of the original transaction.
This does require more fine grained control of which outputs you spend, which not all wallets provide. The behavior from miners prioritizing this way has existed in some pools for a while, but now it is the default. Here is a guide for as many wallets as I could figure out how to perform an RBF with.
A "stuck" transaction is a transaction which has remained unconfirmed for period of time which either the receiver or the sender is uncomfortable with. Stuck transactions can be annoying as it means that recipients often consider the senders to not have paid yet, or the recipient needs the money as soon as possible.
Stuck transactions are typically caused by low transaction fee rates. However other things can cause stuck transactions such as spending from an unconfirmed transaction, having dust outputs in the transaction, or being a double spend of another transaction. If a transaction has a double spending transaction and the double spend confirms, then the transaction will be "stuck" forever as it can never confirm.
If you are incapable of performing any of the other options or are too afraid to do so, you can simply wait and hope that the transaction will eventually confirm. To ensure the network is constantly being reminded of the transaction, you can rebroadcast the transaction periodically. Most wallets will rebroadcast automatically, so simply leaving your wallet open will allow rebroadcasting to happen. If a transaction remains unconfirmed for too long, it can be eventually "forgotten" by most nodes on the Bitcoin network if no one rebroadcasts the transaction.
This happens due to node restarts, mempool expiry times, or mempool eviction because the minimum mempool fee has increased. This process typically takes a few days usually 3. Once a transaction has been "forgotten", you may not see it in your wallet and you probably will not see the transaction in most block explorers. Once the transaction has been "forgotten", you can simply send the Bitcoin again but include a higher transaction fee. If you still see the transaction in your wallet but don't find it on any block explorers, you will need to follow the instructions in the next Replace-By-Fee Section.
Note that some wallets will continuously rebroadcast the transaction while the wallet is on, so you either have to remove the transaction from the wallet using the instructions in the RBF section, or shut down the wallet and keep it off for several days. Some mining pools and miners offer services to allow you to prioritize your transaction in their mempool so that it is chosen sooner for inclusion in a block.
Not that BTC. Also note that if you attempt a Replace-By-Fee transaction, both the original transaction and the RBF transaction will be considered double spends. Miners will likely not help with any transactions marked as double spends. A Replace-By-Fee transaction is a transaction that is nearly identical to your stuck transaction but pays a higher transaction fee.
Since the original transaction most likely does not use Opt-in RBF, the RBF transaction that we will be creating will be considered a double spend and marked as such. The transaction uses Full-RBF and thus may still take a little bit longer to confirm as it is technically a double spend. Full RBF means that the transaction is simply a double spend of another transaction but pays a higher transaction fee than the one s it replaces.
The instructions given in this section will be for making Full RBF transactions. Making a Full RBF transaction depends entirely on the wallet that you are using. Some wallets support the advanced functionality required to make a Full RBF transaction, others do not. The following will be guides for each wallet on how to make a Full RBF transaction with that wallet.
In general the procedure is to remove the unconfirmed transaction from the wallet and then resend the Bitcoin but with a higher transaction fee. When making a Full RBF transaction, the transaction should include the recommended fee rate effective at the time of creating the transaction. See the "Avoiding this issue in the future" section for help with that.
Simply go to the transactions list, right click the transaction that is stuck, and choose the Abandon Transaction option. If that option is greyed out, go to the Bitcoin Core datadir and delete the mempool. If the above two options fail for some reason, start Bitcoin Core with the -zapwallettxes option to clear all unconfirmed transactions from your wallet. Once the transaction is either Abandoned or cleared from the wallet, you can simply go to the Send tab and send the Bitcoin again but make sure that you include a sufficient transaction fee.
This will clear all of the unconfirmed transactions from the wallet and thus allow you to create the Full RBF transaction. Once Armory has restarted, simply send the Bitcoin again as you normally would but be sure to include a sufficient transaction fee.
Go to Manage Wallet and click on Repair Wallet and follow the wizard. This process will clear all of the unconfirmed transactions from your wallet much like Bitcoin Core and Armory do. Once repair wallet has completed, simply send the Bitcoin again as you normally would. Note that some users have had trouble with this method in the past and it may not always work. You may need to wait for the transaction to be "forgotten" in order for this method to work. Not all wallets support the creation of Full RBF transactions.
Many wallets do not allow clearing all unconfirmed transactions to allow for making Full RBF transactions. The following is a list of wallet software which do not support Full RBF transactions. If a wallet on this list does support FullRBF transactions, please let me know and provide instructions for that so I can add it above.
A Child-Pays-For-Parent CPFP transaction is exactly as the name implies, a child transaction spends from an unconfirmed parent transaction and includes a transaction fee which covers both the fee of the child and the parent.
However creating CPFP transactions are much more difficult as it requires spending from an unconfirmed transaction, something that many wallets do not allow. The best way to avoid having stuck transactions is to make sure that you are not spending from an unconfirmed transaction, and include a sufficient transaction fee. If your wallet supports dynamic transaction fees, you should use those. If you want very fast confirmations, set the dynamic fees to choose the fastest fee possible.
Dynamic fees are calculated by the wallet by analyzing the current state of the network and determining an optimal transaction fee from there. Since the state of the network constantly changes, the optimal transaction fee calculated one day may not necessarily be the best fee for the next day.
You must do this for each transaction you make otherwise you may end up paying a sub-optimal fee. If your wallet does not support any sort of fee rate or does not allow setting custom transaction fees, you should upgrade to a new wallet. Using a fixed fee or fixed fee rate is no longer a good idea as the network constantly changes.
Note that some wallets e. If you notice that your transactions are constantly being stuck even though you are using dynamic fees, you should check the settings of your wallet and perhaps even switch to a new wallet which has no limit to the transaction fee. Then when you want to send some Bitcoin, next to the Fee slider is a box labeled "Replaceable".
Check that box so that while the transaction is still unconfirmed you can replace the transaction with one that pays a higher fee. To increase the fee of a transaction that uses Opt-In RBF, right click the transaction in the history list and choose the "Increase Fee" option. Armory also allows for the creation of RBF transactions. When sending a transaction, choose the checkbox "Enable RBF". To increase the fee of a transaction that uses Opt-In RBF, right click the transaction in the transactions list and choose the "Bump Fee" option.
Transactions whose fee can be increased are labeled clearly in the transactions list. The fee estimation of most wallets has significantly improved since blocks have gotten full. If you're running an outdated version, it's likely that it is doing a bad job of guessing the fee. That may cause you to either overpay or your transactions not getting confirmed in a timely fashion. To avoid fee-related delays in the future, it is advantageous to run a current version of your wallet software.
If you are using Electrum, there is no equivalent to -zapwallettxes. The closest thing you can do is to restore your wallet from a seed. This will wipe your client of any unconfirmed transactions. Note: In the fee event, accelerators were widely used, but they seem to be rather expensive today in There are some services that take out-of-band requests to prioritize transactions that call themselves "transaction accelerators".
If I had seen Andrew's great reply earlier, I would probably spared myself from writing an explainer on Reddit , but now that I did I'll post it here as well, hoping that it might complement this thread, as it is targeted more at beginner level folks. In the last days we have been experiencing a sharp rise in price, which is historically correlated with many people transacting over the Bitcoin network.
Many people transacting over the Bitcoin network implies that the blockspace is in popular demand, meaning that when you send a transaction, it has to compete with other transactions for the inclusion in one of the blocks in the future. Miners are motivated by profits and transactions that pay more than other transactions are preferred when mining a new block.
This post attempts to explain how the mempool works, how to optimize fees and that one does not need to worry about their funds. In bitcoin there is no "in transit". Transactions are atomic meaning they either happen all at once or don't happen at all. There is no situation where they "leave" one wallet and are not simultaneously and instantaneously in the destination address.
Either the transaction happened or it didn't. The only time you can't see the funds is if your wallet is hiding them because it is tracking a pending transaction and doesn't want you to try and spend funds that are already being spent in another transaction. It doesn't mean the money is in limbo, it's just your wallet waiting to see the outcome.
If that is the case, you just wait. Eventually the transaction will either happen or will be deleted by the network. Keep also in mind that this is not possible with any transaction RBF requires opt in before sending, f. If nothing else works and your transaction really needs a soon confirmation, you can try and contact a mining pool to ask them if they would include your transaction. Some mining pools even offer a web-interface for this: 1 , 2. If you are interested in trying out those options, here is a very helpful post that goes more into it: What can I do to make my stuck transaction confirm?
Here you see how many transactions are currently and were historically waiting to be confirmed, i. You can then deduct which layer your own transaction is currently at, and how far away from the top your position is miners work through the mempool always from the top, simply because the transactions on top pay them more. You can estimate that each newly mined block removes 1MB from the top see the third graph which shows the mempool size in MB. On average, a new block is produced every ten minutes.
The second important observation is that the mempool "ebbs and flows", so even the lower paid transactions are periodically being confirmed at some point. A you can influence directly, B you can observe in real time, but C is difficult to predict. So it's always a little tricky to tell when the first confirmation happens if you set your fees low. But it's quite certain that at some point even the cheap transactions will come through.
Good to know : "fee" means the absolute amount of satoshis a transaction pays, and "fee rate" is the fee per weight of a transaction. Miners prioritize by the latter, because even if a "lighter" transaction pays less in absolute satoshis, it might be more profitable to include it into a block if it has higher fee rate, because it also takes up less space.
Transactions are being broadcast by the full nodes on the network. Each node can adjust their settings for how long they keep unconfirmed transactions in their mempool. This means that in the absolute worst case the unconfirmed transaction will simply disappear from the network, as if it never happened.
Keep in mind that in those two weeks the coins never actually leave your wallet. A transaction with very low fee rate might also disappear from the network if the mempool goes over MB in size, because by default a Bitcoin Core node will purge transactions from its internal mempool, starting with the lowest fee rates first, while increasing its minimum acceptable fee rates that it will broadcast further.
You can read more about it here. Spikes this large have been very rare in bitcoin's history so far though, I think there was only one, briefly in January Important to know : even if the transaction has been forgotten by most nodes and doesn't appear anymore on blockexplorers, it is still a valid transaction and might have stayed in the mempool of a node somewhere.
So it's better to use one of the inputs in another transaction to invalidate the original, "stuck" transaction otherwise you risk it to be re-broadcast and be confirmed when you already forgot about it. Here are some resources that can help you estimate fees when sending a bitcoin transaction, so you don't end up overpaying or underpaying unnecessarily.
Keep in mind that in order to take advantage of this, you need a proper bitcoin wallet which allows for custom fee setting. A selection of such wallets you can find here or here. Here you can see a visualization of how many unconfirmed transactions are currently on the network, as well as how many were there in the past. Miners create blocks by solving the proof of work for their proposed block.
The block interval has an average of 10 minutes but not every block interval is exactly 10 minutes. It follows a statistical process known as a poisson process , where random events happen with the same probability in each time interval. Another way of expressing this is that the mining process has no memory, at every second a block has the same chance of being found. Poisson processes are well-understood but can be unintuative. There are lots of block intervals with a time less than 10 minutes but then a few block intervals much longer which bump up the average to 10 minutes.
dann.hutsonartworks.com › explained › why-is-my-bitcoin-transaction-unconfirmed. Go to Manage Wallet and click on Repair Wallet and follow the wizard. This process will clear all of the unconfirmed transactions from your wallet much like. dann.hutsonartworks.com › business-services › business-roundup › how-to-cancel-a-bitc.